Conventional Fire Alarm System

Conventional Fire Alarm System
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Conventional fire detection system

The conventional fire detection system is one whose elements (detectors, buttons, etc.) are grouped by zones. When a detection zone goes into alarm, the acoustic and luminous warning is produced through the alarm devices: sirens, spotlights, indicators, etc.
This type of fire detection facilities are the most common in small premises or car parks since, due to the small size of the premises or its open-plan nature, it is not difficult to locate the element in alarm, although the control unit cannot Indicate only the zone where the alarm occurs and each of these zones houses a relatively high number of detectors.
Conventional fire detection installations are designed for maximum duration and easy maintenance.

A detection and alarm system are made up of initiation elements, fire control panels and notification elements. The advantage of a detection and alarm system lies in the effectiveness of detecting an event immediately, providing timely alerts and thus enabling a rapid intervention by trained personnel to intervene in the event.

Fire detection systems are classified as conventional systems, where the areas to be protected are grouped by detection zones. And when a fire outbreak is detected in an area, the system is activated by emitting an acoustic or light warning.

Intelligent analog fire detection systems differ from conventional ones in individually recognizing each detector, modules, manual stations, indicating the precise point where a fire event occurs. It is applied to large buildings such as hotels or hospitals, commercial and industrial buildings, storage sheds, factories, among other sectors.

Conventional Systems Contains:

  • Fire station by zones  
  • Thermal detectors
  • Photoelectric detectors
  • Duct detectors
  • Beam detectors
  • Manual stations
  • Sound diffusers
  • Strobe lights

Intelligent Analog Systems Contains:

  • Loop fire stations
  • Directional peripheral equipment:
    • Photoelectric Analog Smoke Detector
    • Thermal detector
    • Duct detector
    • Manual station
    • Relay Module
    • Monitoring module
    • Short circuit isolator module
    • Control module
    • 4-20 mA analog signal supervision module
    • Conventional zone monitoring module
  • Sound base
  • Annunciators
  • Sound diffusers
  • Speakers
  • Strobe lights
  • Paging panels

What are the types of Fire Detection Systems?

For the detection and forecasting of accidents caused by fire, there are currently three technological variants, each of which has its advantages according to the application requirement.

To better understand the existing technologies on the market, a firm understanding of the types of fire detection systems available is necessary, of which three variants stand out:
- Conventional
- Conventional Addressable
- Analog Addressable

Each of these types or classes of systems will be detailed below, explaining their advantages and disadvantages when keeping them in mind to carry out an installation.

Conventional Systems

Conventional fire alarm panels work by zones and have a capacity established by each manufacturer, ranging from 1 to 100 zones. Basically, a zone consists of some or all of the action or control accessories of an area or floor of a building. When it comes to action, it is referring to the elements that inform the panel of a fire situation, including a fire warning lever or different types of detectors.

 Fire Detection System in Bangladesh

Some control panels allow scalability in their architecture, allowing the increase in the number of zones by means of expansion modules, which makes it possible to increase the system both in number of initiation and indication zones.

In this way, the main characteristics of Conventional Systems are the following:
- Low initial cost of equipment.
- Wide range of compatible devices.
- Simple programming.
- Suitable for low and medium installations.
- Only for detection, little integration.

Conventional Addressable System

Addressable panels arose from the need for better identification of the place or area where a fire alarm signal was produced, for which specific technology had to be developed. This new technology allowed manufacturers to be able to incorporate and mix on an SLC circuit (Signaling Line Circuits), now called a loop and no longer zone, a greater number of alarm notification accessories, as the panels have the possibility of identifying which accessory specific is sending the signal to the panel. These accessories are called points.

The point capacity of an addressable system is determined by the amount of SLC it contains and by the number of points that each of these loops allows. Again, according to each manufacturer, there may be panels with one or more ties.

Thus, the main characteristics of the Conventional Addressable Systems are:
- Easy Installation.
- More information on the status of the system about the panel and the central station (event log).
- Very flexible entry and exit programming.
- Greater capacity for expansion and integration.

 Conventional fire detection system in Bangladesh

Addressable Analog System

In this type of system, the detectors become sensors that transmit, in addition to their address to the control panel, the information corresponding to how much smoke or heat it is registering. Once the control panel has been programmed, it will make the decision to give an alarm based on the information received, when it does not agree with the parameterized values.

An addressable analog control panel is also capable of performing tasks not available in some conventional and / or conventional addressable systems. Among them:
- Drift compensation / Maintenance alert.
- Sensitivity adjustable by detector.
- Day / Night sensitivity adjustment.

Some of these functions are specifically required by the NFPA while others, according to each manufacturer, will facilitate control through causes and effects, improve programming and facilitate control not only of fire detection but also of other types of fire. control, such as security, supervision, deactivations or test mode:
- Addressable Analog Sensor.
- Drift Compensation.
- Maintenance Alert.
- Sensitivity adjustable by detector.
- Day / Night setting.
- Test methods.
- Communication protocols.
- Comparison of protocols.